^روجرز، فيليس (1980). "My Favorite Foods are Dr Pepper, Collard Greens, and Pizza. I'm sure I'll Be a Good Clown". ScholarlyCommons. Studies in Visual Communication. لجامعة د پنسلڤانيا. 6 (1): 44–45. doi:10.1111/j.2326-8492.1980.tb00116.x. تطّالع عليه ب تاريخ 11 يوليوز 2022. Your face was your fortune, and to copy another man's face without his permission was theft, punishable by ostracism. Every man had some kind of special trick which made his makeup look perfect...The old clowns feel that the quickest and easiest way for a person to distinguish between a clown and a person in makeup is the clown's ability to make his face move...The old clowns say that anyone can apply greasepaint to his face but very few practitioners of the art of clowning ever acquire the skill to make their faces move.
^باطلر، لوريل (مارس 2012). "'Everything seemed new': Clown as Embodied Critical Pedagogy". Theatre Topics. Johns Hopkins University Press. 22 (1): 63–72. doi:10.1353/tt.2012.0014. مأرشيڤي من لأصل ف 19 ماي 2017. تطّالع عليه ب تاريخ 11 يوليوز 2022. Italian clown pedagogue Giovanni Fusetti proposes...conceiving of clown as a state of being...'a state of playing where everyone has access to the key question: what is so funny about myself?' Lecoq describes entering into ‘the clown dimension,' which requires 'a state of openness, entirely without defense...a state of reaction and surprise' (146). John Wright...[says] 'the state of bafflement that we see in clown...as a common state of humanity...Clown reminds us that, deep down, we're all in exactly the same bemused state' (218). John Flax (2009)...says that, for Lecoq, 'theatrical clown was just about finding that basic state of vulnerability and allowing the audience to exist in that state with you...A clown state is a state of innocence and poetry and naivety that allows the audience to draw their own conclusions. That’s the state that you bring them to, and they'll make the connections or not, but they love to be in that state because we don't go there very often. It's a state of anti-intellectualism, a kind of pure emotion.'
^Keisalo، Marianna (24 مارس 2017). "'Picking People to Hate': Reversible reversals in stand-up comedy". Suomen Antropologi. 41 (4): 62. تطّالع عليه ب تاريخ 11 يوليوز 2022. Reversals, broadly defined as switching to the opposite of what is considered 'the normal order' ... Reversals are an important aspect of the performance of many ritual clown figures (Keisalo-Galvan 2011; Steward 1991 ) as well as more everyday instances of clowning and humor (e.g., Basso 1979).
^Double، Oliver (2014). "Licence". Getting the Joke: the inner workings of stand-up comedy. Quote by Stewart Lee (طبعة 2nd). New York: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama. ص. 264. ردمك978-1-4081-7460-9. According to Stewart Lee, 'By reversing the norms and breaking the taboos, the clowns show us what we have to lose, and what we might also stand to gain, if we stand outside the restrictions of social convention and polite everyday discourse.'